# Get a Pareto Chart & Analysis Template Right Here

Sometimes, the vast majority of our problems have just a few small causes. Pareto charts, and Pareto analysis, are tools that help us discover which problems are causing most of our defects (or alternatively, which small number of opportunities offer the majority of the payoff). Today, I’ll talk about how to build a Pareto Chart and run [...]

# Bootstrapping Statistics & Confidence Intervals, Tutorial

If you use applied statistics in your career, odds are you’ve used the Great Assumption Of Our Era, the assumption of the Normal distribution. There are some good reasons for this. The Central Limit Theorem is usually thrown in there as a justification, and it works reasonably well for practical applications. But the Central Limit [...]

# 6 Sigma Calculator to Convert Between PPM / DPMO & Sigma

One of the primary goals of statistical process control is to reduce the probability of a “defect,” however you define it, to acceptable levels. Probably the most widely known example is Six Sigma, which aims to keep the number of defects below 3.4 per million. (More on that later, considering that it technically corresponds to 4.5 [...]

# The Cohen’s d Formula

Repeat after me: “statistical significance is not everything.” It’s just as important to have some measure of how practically significant an effect is, and this is done using what we call an effect size. Cohen’s d is one of the most common ways we measure the size of an effect. Here, I’ll show you how to calculate it. If you’ [...]

Hey everybody. I’ve added another resource to the “Downloads” section of the site up top by adding a new spreadsheet. This one makes it easy to combine standard deviations from multiple samples, even if you don’t have the raw data. You can pick it up here. [...]

Blog posts can only be so useful. Today, I’ve updated the menu with a new “Downloads” section, and I’ve added a resource to this site, a spreadsheet that you can use in Excel to test whether your data comes from the normal distribution. Expect a lot more updates like this soon. [...]

# Learn Data Analysis for Excel in 2.5 Hours, Part 3: AKA – “Everything Else”

Today I’m going to finish up this series on data analysis in Excel. This time around, I’ll cover all the basic statistics like correlation, covariance, descriptive statistics, and so on. We’ll also talk about a few miscellaneous tools for exponential smoothing, Fourier analysis, moving averages, random number generation, rank and [...]

# Learn Data Analysis for Excel in 2.5 Hours, Part 2: Statistical Testing

(Image by James Vaughan) If you’ve ever tried to set up a legitimate statistical test in Excel, you already know it’s painful, but if you have the Analysis ToolPak enabled, things get a bit easier. Today, we’re going to learn how to run statistical tests in Excel. We’ll cover F-tests to compare variances, t-tests to compare 2 [...]

# Learn Data Analysis for Excel in 2.5 Hours, Part 1: Enabling the ToolPak, and Regression Analysis

Statistical analysis in Excel is a huge pain unless you know how to enable the Analysis Toolpak. In part 1 of this series on data analysis in Excel, I’m going to tell you how to do that. Next, we’ll talk about regression analysis (the real thing, including multiple variables, not just fitting a line to a graph). This whole post should [...]